Lou Andreas-Salomé (1861–1936) bridged those worlds of philosophy, literature and psychology, making contributions to each one. Her novels and criticism challenged readers to rethink gender roles, and she became a pioneering psychoanalyst. She developed close relationships with Nietzsche, Rilke, and Freud. But Salomé was also a person of profound contradictions. She had a reputation as a femme fatale but spent thirty-three years in an unconsummated marriage.